Category Archives: Interview Questions

Access Deleted Row Columns / Information in DataTable – ADO.NET

Sometimes you may need to access the information in a deleted row in a DataTable. If you access the deleted row direcly, you will get an exception saying that the row has been deleted.

To avoid the exception, but still access the information in the deleted row of the DataTable, you just need to specify that you want to get the information from the original version of the row by specifying DataRowVersion.Original as follows:

if (dataRow.RowState == DataRowState.Deleted)
id = (string)dataRow[“CustomerID”, DataRowVersion.Original];

You can get only the deleted rows from a DataTable by iterating through all the rows and checking the DataRowState, or you could simply create a DataView that filters on DataViewRowState.Deleted:

// Get Only Deleted Rows in DataTable
DataView dv = new DataView(sourceDataTable,
null, null, DataViewRowState.Deleted);

You can also convert that DataView to a DataTable using the new DataView.ToTable() method:

DataTable dt = dv.ToTable();

The rows in the new DataTable, dt, will not be marked as DataRowState.Deleted but rather DataRowState.Added, because this is a new DataTable. You can easily iterate through this table now as none of the rows will be mark deleted and you will have full access to the information without specifying DataRowVersion.

What is delegate?What is the advantages of delegates?

Delegate is like a pointer to a function.suppose we want to call one or more than one function simultaniously then we have to delegate.
we have to define the function in the delegate and now if we call the delegate then the functions
will automatically called.
but to call that function we have to keep in mind that “the parameter type,return type and number of parameters will be same.”

using System;

namespace Deleg
	class Calculation
		public delegate void calcHandler(double d1, double d2);
		public void calculate(calcHandler clc, double d1,double d2)
	class MyClass
		public static void add(double d1, double d2)
			Console.WriteLine("Summation = " + (d1+d2));
		public static void subtract(double d1, double d2)
			Console.WriteLine("Subtract = " + (d1-d2));
		public static void multiply(double d1, double d2)
			Console.WriteLine("Multiplication = " + (d1*d2));

		public static void devide(double d1, double d2)
			Console.WriteLine("Devision = " + (d1/d2));

		public static void Main()
		Calculation.calcHandler myDele = new Calculation.calcHandler  (add);
		myDele += new Calculation.calcHandler(subtract);
		myDele += new Calculation.calcHandler(multiply);
		myDele += new Calculation.calcHandler(devide);
		Calculation c = new Calculation();


Dynamic binding can be done by using delegate because we can call more than one methods at a time dynamically by calling the delegate in which the methods is defined.

Why multiple inheritance is not supported in .net?

C#/ don’t support the Multiple inheritance because to avoid the ambiguty of member of parents class
but we use interface for same purpose as like multiple inheritance

Because interfaces do not the implementation details, they only know what operations an object can do.
Multiple inheritance is difficult when there are two different implementations are found for the method with
same signature in both the base classes. But in case of interface both the interface may define a common method with
same signature but they are not implemented at the interface level, they are only implemented by the object or type that
implement both the interfaces. Here though there are two different interfaces defining two methods with same signatures,
the object provides the common implementation satisfying both the methods in both the interfaces. So there is no ambiguity
between implementations, both the methods have common implementation hence you could have multiple inheritance in case of

Linq Interview Questions

What is LINQ?
LINQ, or Language INtegrated Query, is a set of classes added to the .NET Framework 3.5. LINQ adds a rich, standardized query syntax to .NET programming languages that allows developers to interact with any type of data.

What are the advantages of using LINQ or Language INtegrated Query?
In any data driven application, you get data either from a Database, or an XML file or from collection classes. Prior to LINQ, working with each data source requires writing a different style of code. Moreover, working with external resources like data bases, XML files involves communicating with that external resource in some syntax specific to that resource. To retrieve data from a database you need to send it a string that contains the SQL query to execute, similarly, to work with an XML document involves specifying an XPath expression in the form of a string. The idea is that using LINQ you can work with disparate data sources using a similar style without having to know a separate syntax for communicating with the data source (e.g., SQL or XPath) and without having to resort to passing opaque strings to external resources.

In any data driven web application or windows application, we use database as a datasource for the application. In order to get data from the database and display it in a web or windows application, we typically do the following.
1. Prepare your SQL Statements.
2. Execute SQL Statements against the database.
3. Retrieve the results.
4. Populate the Business Objects.
5. Display the Data in the Web Form or Windows From.

In order to send a query to the database we must first establish a connection to the database. We then must encode the logic – the SQL query, its parameters, and the parameters’ values – into strings that are supplied to the SqlCommand object. And because these inputs are encoded into opaque strings, there is no compile-time error checking and very limited debugging support. For example, if there is a spelling mistake in the SELECT query causing the Customets table name to be misspelled, this typographical error won’t show up until runtime when this page is viewed in a web browser. These typographical errors are easy to make as there is no IntelliSense support. When we use LINQ, Visual Studio would display an error message alerting us about the incorrect table name.

Another mismatch between the programming language and the database is that the data returned by the database is transformed for us into objects accessible through the SqlDataReader, but these objects are not strongly-typed objects like we’d like. To get this data into strongly-typed objects we must write code ourselves that enumerates the database results and populates each record into a corresponding object.

LINQ was designed to address all these issues. LINQ also offers a unified syntax for working with data, be it data from a database, an XML file, or a collection of objects. With LINQ you don’t need to know the intricacies of SQL, the ins and outs of XPath, or various ways to work with a collection of objects. All you need be familiar with is LINQ’s classes and the associated language enhancements centered around LINQ.

In other words, LINQ provides type safety, IntelliSense support, compile-time error checking, and enhanced debugging scenarios when working with different datasources.

What are the three main components of LINQ or Language INtegrated Query?

1. Standard Query Operators
2. Language Extensions
3. LINQ Providers
How are Standard Query Operators implemented in LINQ?
Standard Query Operators are implemented as extension methods in .NET Framework. These Standard Query Operators can be used to work with any collection of objects that implements the IEnumerable interface. A class that inherits from the IEnumerable interface must provide an enumerator for iterating over a collection of a specific type. All arrays implement IEnumerable. Also, most of the generic collection classes implement IEnumerable interface.
How are Standard Query Operators useful in LINQ?
Standard Query Operators in LINQ can be used for working with collections for any of the following and more.

1. Get total count of elements in a collection.
2. Order the results of a collection.
3. Grouping.
4. Computing average.
5. Joining two collections based on matching keys.
6. Filter the results

List the important language extensions made in C# to make LINQ a reality?
1. Implicitly Typed Variables
2. Anonymous Types
3. Object Initializers
4. Lambda Expressions

What is the purpose of LINQ Providers in LINQ?
LINQ Providers are a set of classes that takes a LINQ query and dynamically generates a method that executes an equivalent query against a specific data source.

What are the four LINQ Providers that .NET Framework ships?
1. LINQ to Objects – Executes a LINQ query against a collection of objects
2. LINQ to XML – Executes an XPATH query against XML documents
3. LINQ to SQL – Executes LINQ queries against Microsoft SQL Server.
4. LINQ to DataSets – Executes LINQ queries against ADO.NET DataSets.

Write a program using LINQ to find the sum of first 5 prime numbers?

XML Interview Questions

What Is XML?
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language, and it is used to describe documents and data in a standardized, text-based format that can be easily transported via standard Internet protocols. XML, like HTML, is based on, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

What are Well-formed XML documents?
, is very strict about a small core of format requirements that make the difference between a text document containing a bunch of tags and an actual XML document. XML documents that meet W3C XML document formatting recommendations are described as being well-formed XML documents. Well-formed XML documents can contain elements, attributes, and text.

What is an empty XML element?
Elements with no attributes or text are called as empty XML element. Empty XML elements can be represented in an XML document as shown below:

What is meant by XML document declaration?
Most XML documents start with an <?xml?> element at the top of the page. This is called an XML document declaration. An XML document declaration is an optional element that is useful to determine the version of XML and the encoding type of the source data. It is not a required element for an XML document to be well formed. Most common XML document declaration is shown below:
<?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”UTF-8”?>

What does UTF stands for?
UTF stands for Universal Character Set Transformation Format.

Should every XML document have a root element?

Can an XML document contain multiple root level elements?
No, an XML document can contain only one root level element.

What is the use of XML attributes?
XML attributes are used for adding more information and descriptions to the values of elements,and the text associated with elements.

Is XML case sensitive?

How do you comment lines in XML?
You can comment lines in XML as shown below.
<! — This is commented line in an XML document –>

What are XML namespaces?
Namespaces are a method for separating and identifying duplicate XML element names in an XML document. Namespaces can also be used as identifiers to describe data types and other information. Namespace declarations can be compared to defining a short variable name for a long variable (such as pi=3.14159….) in programming languages. In XML, the variable assignment is defined by an attribute declaration. The variable name is the attribute name, and the variable value is the attribute value. In order to identify namespace declarations versus other types of attribute declarations, a reserved xmlns: prefix is used when declaring a namespace name and value. The attribute name after the xmlns: prefix identifies the name for the defined namespace. The value of the attribute provides the unique identifier for the namespace. Once the namespace is declared, the namespace name can be used as a prefix in element names.

Why is it a good idea to use a URL as the XML namespace value?
Although the namespace declaration value does not need to be a URL or resolve to an actual URL destination, it is a good idea to use a URL anyway, and to choose a URL that could resolve to an actual destination, just in case developers want to add documentation for the namespace to the URL in the future.

When to use namespaces?
Namespaces are optional components of basic XML documents. However, namespace declarations are recommended if your XML documents have any current or future potential of being shared with other XML documents that may share the same element names. Also, newer XML-based technologies such as XML Schemas,SOAP, and WSDL make heavy use of XML namespaces to identify data encoding types and important elements of their structure.

What determines the validity of an XML document?
Document Type Definition(DTD) or an XML Schema determines the validity of an XML document.

What is a valid XML document?
XML documents are compared to rules that are specified in a DTD or schema. A well-formed XML document that meets all of the requirements of one or more specifications is called a valid XML Document.

What are the 2 types of XML parsers?
Nonvalidating Parsers – Parsers that don’t support validation
Validating Parsers – Parsers that support validation

Can you combine both Schema and DTD references in a single XML document?

Are DTD’s well-formed XML documents?
No, DTDs are not well-formed XML documents. This is because they follow DTD syntax rules rather than XML document syntax.

Are XML schema’s well-formed XML documents?

What is the difference between an XML schema and a DTD?
The XML Schema is the officially sanctioned Schema definition. Unlike DTDs, the format of XML Schemas follows the rules of well-formed XML documents. The Schema also allows for much more granular control over the data that is being described. Because of the XML format and the detailed format controls, Schemas tend to be very complex and often much longer than the XML documents that they are describing. Schemas are often much more easy for developers to read and follow,due to the less cryptic nature of the references in Schemas versus DTDs.

How do you define references to schemas in an XML document?
References to schemas are defined by creating an instance of the XMLSchemainstance namespace. An example is shown below.
<rootelement xmlns:xsi=”” xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation=”schemafile.xsd”>

The namespace declaration reference to resolves to an actual document at that location, which is a brief description of the way that the W3C Schema should be referenced. The noNamespaceSchemaLocation value tells us that there is no predefined namespace for the Schema. This means that all of the elements in the XML document should be validated against the schema specified. The location of the Schema is schemafile.xsd. Because there is no path defined, the file containing the schema should be located in the same directory as the XML file to be validated by the Schema.

You can also define the schema location, and map it to a specific namespace by using the schemaLocation attribute declaration instead of noNamespace SchemaLocation. If you do so, you have to declare a namespace that matches the schemaLocation attribute value. The declaration must be made before you reference the schema in a schemaLocation attribute assignment.

ASP.NET Interview Questions on Globalization

What is Globalization?
Globalization is the process of creating an application that meets the needs of users from multiple cultures. This process involves translating the user interface elements of an application into multiple languages, using the correct currency, date and time format, calendar, writing direction, sorting rules, and other issues. Accommodating these cultural differences in an application is called localization.

The Microsoft .NET Framework simplifies localization tasks substantially by making its formatting, date/time, sorting, and other classes culturally aware. Using classes from the System.Globalization namespace, you can set the application’s current culture, and much of the work is done automatically!

What are the 3 different ways to globalize web applications?

Detect and redirect approach : In this approach we create a separate Web application for each supported culture, and then detect the user’s culture and redirect the request to the appropriate application. This approach is best for applications with lots of text content that requires translation and few executable components.

Run-time adjustment approach : In this approach we create a single Web application that detects the user’s culture and adjusts output at run time using format specifiers and other tools. This approach is best for simple applications that present limited amounts of content.

Satellite assemblies approach : In this approach we create a single Web application that stores culture-dependent strings in resource files that are compiled into satellite assemblies. At run time, detect the user’s culture and load strings from the appropriate assembly. This approach is best for applications that generate content at run time or that have large executable components.

In ASP.NET, how do you detect the user’s language preference on his/her computer?
Use the Request object’s UserLanguages property to return a list of the user’s language preferences. The first element of the array returned by UserLanguages is the user’s current language on his/her computer.

What are the steps to follow to get user’s culture at run time?
To get the user’s culture at run time, follow these steps:
1. Get the Request object’s UserLanguages property.
2. Use the returned value with the CultureInfo class to create an object representing the user’s current culture.

For example, the following code gets the user’s culture and displays the English name and the abbreviated name of the culture in a label the first time the page is displayed:
private void Page_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
// Run the first time the page is displayed
if (!IsPostBack)
// Get the user’s preferred language.
string sLang = Request.UserLanguages[0];
// Create a CultureInfo object from it.
CultureInfo CurrentCulture = new CultureInfo(sLang);
lblCulture.Text = CurrentCulture.EnglishName + “: ” +

What are the advantages of using detect and redirect approach to globalizing web applications?
1. Content is maintained separately, so this approach allows the different applications to present very different information, if needed.
2. Users can be automatically directed to sites that are likely to be geographically close, and so can better meet their needs.
3. Content files (Web forms and HTML pages, for example) can be authored in the appropriate natural language without the complexity of including resource strings.

What are the disadvantages of using detect and redirect approach to globalizing web applications?
1. Using this approach requires that the executable portion of the Web application be compiled and deployed separately to each culture-specific Web site.
2. This approach requires more effort to maintain consistency and to debug problems across Web sites.

What is the use of culture attribute of the globalization element in web.config?
The Web.config file’s globalization element is used to create a culture-specific Web application. The culture attribute of the globalization element specifies how the Web application deals with various culture-dependent issues, such as dates, currency, and number formatting.

Web.config globalization settings in subordinate folders override the globalization settings in the application’s root Web.config file. You can store content for various cultures in subfolders within your application, add Web.config files with the globalization settings for each culture, then direct users to the appropriate folder based on the user’s CurrentCulture.

The text on the webform is usually written from left to right. How do you change the writing direction to “right to left”?
The wrting direction of a webform can be changed using the HTML dir attribute as shown below.
<body dir=”rtl”>

You can use the dir attribute individually in panels, text boxes, or other controls as well. Setting the dir attribute on the body element applies right-to-left formatting to the entire page.

What do you mean by neutral cultures?
Neutral cultures represent general languages, such as English or Spanish, rather than a specific language and region. When you set the culture attribute for a Web application in Web.config, ASP.NET assigns that culture to all the threads running for that Web application. Threads are the basic unit to which the server allocates processor time. ASP.NET maintains multiple threads for a Web application within the aspnet_wp.exe worker process.

What are advantages of setting the culture dynamically at the thread level over creating separate Web applications for each culture?
1. All cultures share the same application code, so the application doesn’t have to be compiled and deployed for each culture.
2. The application resides at a single Web address, you don’t need to redirect users to other Web applications.
3. The user can choose from a full array of available cultures.

For what type of web applications setting the culture dynamically is best suited?
Setting the culture dynamically is best suited for simple Web applications that don’t contain large amounts of text that must be translated into different languages.

ASP.NET Interview Questions on caching

What is caching?
High-performance Web applications should be designed with caching in mind. Caching is the technique of storing frequently used items in memory so that they can be accessed more quickly. Caching is important to Web applications because each time a Web form is requested, the host server must process the Web form’s HTML and run Web form code to create a response. By caching the response, all that work is bypassed. Instead, the request is served from the reponse already stored in memory.

Caching an item incurs considerable overhead, so it’s important to choose the items to cache wisely. A Web form is a good candidate for caching if it is frequently used and does not contain data that frequently changes. By storing a Web form in memory, you are effectively freezing that form’s server-side content so that changes to that content do not appear until the cache is refreshed.

What directive is used to cache a web form?
The @OutputCache page directive is used to cache a Web form in the server’s memory.

What is the use of duration attribute of @OutputCache page directive?
The @OutputCache directive’s Duration attribute controls how long the page is cached. For example if you set the duration attribute to 60 seconds, the Web form is cached for 60 seconds.

The first time any user requests the Web form, the server loads the response in memory and retains that response for 60 seconds. Any subsequent requests during that time receive the cached response.

After the cache duration has expired, the next request for the Web form generates a new response, which is then cached for another 60 seconds. Thus the server processes the Web form once every 60 seconds at most.

What are the 2 required attributes of the @OutputCache directive?
The @OutputCache directive has two required attributes:
1. Duration
VaryByParam. How do you cache multiple responses from a single Web form?
The VaryByParam attribute lets you cache multiple responses from a single Web form based on varying HTTP POST or query string parameters. Setting VaryByParam to None caches only one response for the Web form, regardless of the parameters sent.

You can also cache multiple responses from a single Web form using the VaryByHeaders or VaryByCustom attribute.

The VaryByCustom attribute lets you cache different responses based on a custom string. To use VaryByCustom, override the GetVaryByCustomString method in the Web application’s Global.asax file.

Is it possible to cache a web form without using @OutputCache directive?
Yes, you can cache a web form using the Response object’s Cache property, which returns an HttpCachePolicy object for the response. The HttpCachePolicy object provides members that are similar to the OutputCache directive’s attributes.

Give a simple example to show how to cache a web form without using @OutputCache directive?
For example, the following code caches the Web form’s response for 60 seconds:
private void Page_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
// Cache this page
DateTimeLabel.Text = System.DateTime.Now.ToString();
// Set OutputCache Duration. Response.Cache.SetExpires(System.DateTime.Now.AddSeconds(60));
// Set OutputCache VaryByParams.
Response.Cache.VaryByParams[“None”] = true;
// Set OutputCache Location.

The preceding code is equivalent to the following OutputCache directive:
@ OutputCache Duration=”5″ VaryByParam=”None” Location=”Any”

What is @OutputCache directive’s Location attribute and the HttpCachePolicy object’s SetCacheability property used for?
The @OutputCache directive’s Location attribute and the HttpCachePolicy object’s SetCacheability property determine where Microsoft ASP.NET stores cached responses. By default, ASP.NET caches responses at any available location that accepts cache items – the client, proxy servers, or the host server. In practice, those locations might or might not allow caching, so you can think of the Location/SetCacheability setting as more of a request than a command.

What is HttpCachePolicy object’s SetAllowResponseInBrowserHistory method used for?
You can override the cache location settings using the HttpCachePolicy object’s SetAllowResponseInBrowserHistory method. Setting that method to True allows the response to be stored in the client’s history folder even if the location setting is None or Server.

Which object can used to store frequently used items in the server’s memory for quick retrieval?
Cache object can be used to store frequently used items in the server’s memory for quick retrieval.

Is the cache object available for all web forms with in a web application?
Yes, the Cache object is global, that is, data stored in the Cache object is available anywhere within a Web application. In this way, the Cache object is very similar to the intrinsic Application object.

What are the 3 different ways to store data in the Cache object?
Use assignment.
Assigning a value to an unused key in the Cache object automatically creates that key and assigns the value to that key. Assigning a value to a key that already exists replaces the cached value with the assigned value.
Use the Insert method.
The Insert method uses parameters rather than assignment to create or change cached data. Insert optionally accepts parameters to establish dependencies and set expiration policy.
Use the Add method.
The Add method is similar to Insert; however, it requires all parameters and returns an object reference to the cached data.

For example, the following Cache statements all add the same item to the cache:

using System.Web.Caching;
private void Page_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
Cache[“NewItem”] = “Some string data”;
Cache.Add(“NewItem”, “Some string data”, null, Cache.NoAbsoluteExpiration, System.TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1), CacheItemPriority.Default, null);
Cache.Insert(“NewItem”, “Some string data”);

What are absoluteExpiration and slidingExpiration parmeters of the Insert and Add methods?
A DateTime object that identifies when the data should be removed from the cache. If you’re using sliding expiration, specify Cache.NoAbsoluteExpiration for this parameter.
A TimeSpan object that identifies how long the data should remain in the cache after the data was last accessed. If you’re using absolute expiration, specify Cache.NoSlidingExpiration for this parameter.

Which delegate can be used to notify the application when items are removed from the cache?
onRemoveCallback is used to notify the application when items are removed from the cache.

How do you retrieve the value of a cache item stored in the servers memory?
You can retrieve the value of a cache item stored in the servers memory through the item’s key, just as you do with the Application and Session objects. Because cached items might be removed from memory, you should always check for their existence before attempting to retrieve their value, as shown in the following code:

private void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
if (Cache[“ChachedItem”] == null)
Lable1.Text = “Cached Item not found.”;
Lable1.Text = Cache[“ChachedItem”].ToString();

Which method can be used to remove data from the cache?
Cache object’s Remove method can be used to remove data from the cache as shown in the following code example / sample.

private void RemoveButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

How do you control how long data is cached?
The Cache object’s Add and Insert method parameters allow you to control how long an item is stored in the server’s memory. In practice, these parameter settings provide only indirect control of how long data remains in memory. If your server runs low on available memory, ASP.NET recovers as much memory as possible from expired cache items. If that’s not enough, ASP.NET will unload unexpired items from the cache based on their priority and when they were last accessed.

What is CacheItemPriority enumeration used for?
CacheItemPriority enumeration is used to set the relative importance of cached items. CacheItemPriority.NotRemoveable has the highest priority and CacheItemPriority.Low has the lowest priority.

Which is the only “event” provided by Cache object?
CacheItemRemoved “event” is the only “event” provided by Cache object.

How do you update the Cache object when data changes?
Items stored in the cache are often copies of data that is stored and maintained elsewhere, such as records in a database. Use the Add and Insert methods’ dependency parameter to establish a relationship between a cached data item and an external source, such as a file, a folder, or a group of files.

The dependency parameter accepts a CacheDependency object, which in turn identifies the file, folder, or set of files to watch for changes. ASP.NET checks the time stamp of the items in the CacheDependency object, if one of those time stamps is later than the DateTime entered for the cached item, ASP.NET unloads that item from the cache.


What is fragment caching?
Caching parts of web form is called as fragment caching. Sometimes you want to cache only part of a Web form response. For instance, a Web form might contain many pieces of variable information plus a single large table that almost never changes. In this case, you might place that table in a Web user control and store the response for that control in cache. This technique is called fragment caching.

What are the steps to follow to cache parts of web form?
To cache part of a Web form, follow these steps:
1. Place the controls and content that you want to cache in a Web user control.
2. Set the caching attributes for that Web user control.
3. Create an instance of the Web user control on the Web form.

What is PartialCaching attribute used for?
You can include the PartialCaching attribute in the control’s class declaration to enable fragment caching.

What are the OutputCache directive attributes that apply only to user controls?
Cache a single response from a user control for use on multiple Web forms. By default, ASP.NET caches a separate response for each Web form that uses a cached user control. This attribute is only available in the .NET Framework version 1.1 or later.

Cache multiple responses for a single user control based on the value of one or more controls contained in the user control. Can you cache multiple versions of a user control?Yes, You can cache multiple versions of a user control based on the value of controls contained in a user control (VaryByControl) or based on a custom string (VaryByCustom).

If a user control is read from the cache, can you access its members from code?
No, In general, cached controls are used to present data such as queries from a database, rather than as interactive components. However, if you do need to access a cached control from code, you must first check that the control exists. If the control is read from the cache, you can’t access its members from code. Control members are available only when the control is not read from the cache, such as when the control is first instantiated and when it is reloaded after its cache duration has expired.

When caching is set at both the Web form and user control levels, How does the cache settings interact?
The cache location is determined by the Web form setting. Location settings on a user control have no affect.
If the Web form’s cache duration is longer than the user control’s, both the Web form response and the user control response will expire using the Web form setting.